What are the types of vitamins?
They are organic compounds that are essential in very small amounts to support normal physiological function. We need vitamins in our diet, because our bodies cannot synthesize them enough to meet our daily needs.
Vitamins that are found in very small amounts in all foods of natural origin are absolutely necessary to increase the maintenance of vitality and general well-being of our body.
Vitamins have three characteristics
- They are natural components of food; they are usually present in very small amounts.
- They are essential for normal physiological function (eg growth, reproduction, etc.).
- When they are absent from the diet, they will cause a specific deficiency.
WHEN WERE THE 13 VITAMINS AND FOOD SOURCES DISCOVERED?
- Vitamin-A : (retinol, carotene) 1913 – cod liver oil
- Vitamin-B1 : (thiamine) 1910 -rice bran
- Vitamin-B2 : (riboflavin) 1920 -meat, dairy, eggs
- Vitamin-B3 : (niacin) 1936 -meat, cereals
- Vitamin-B5 : (pantothetic acid) 1931 -meat, whole grains
- Vitamin-B6 : (pyridoxine) 1934 -meat, dairy
- Vitamin-B7 : (biotin) 1931 -meat, dairy, eggs
- Vitamin-B9 : (folic acid) 1941 – legumes
- Vitamin-B12 : 1926 – liver, animal products
- Vitamin-C : (ascorbic acid) 1920 -cítricos
- Vitamin-D : (calciferol) 1920 – cod liver oil
- Vitamin-E : (tocopherol) 1922 -vegetable oils
- Vitamin-K : (filokinone) 1929 – legumes
The types of vitamins are generally classified into the following types:
- Soluble in water
- Fat soluble
1-Types of water soluble vitamins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
- Deficiency – Symptoms include burning feet, limb weakness, rapid heart rate, bloating, anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems.
- Toxicity : unknown.
- Sources : sunflower seeds, asparagus, lettuce, mushrooms, black beans, white beans, lentils, spinach, peas, pinto beans, lima beans, eggplant, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, tuna, whole wheat, soy fertility
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
- Deficiency : Symptoms include cracks, fissures and sores at the corner of the mouth and lips, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, glossitis of the tongue, anxiety, loss of appetite, and fatigue.
- Toxicity : Excess riboflavin can increase the risk of DNA strand breakage in the presence of chromium. High-dose riboflavin therapy will intensify the color of your urine to a bright yellow color (flavinuria), but this is harmless.
- Sources : Almonds, fertility soybeans / tempeh, mushrooms, spinach, whole wheat, yogurt, mackerel, eggs, liver
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
- Deficiency : Symptoms include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and stomatitis.
- Toxicity : Niacin from food is not known to cause adverse effects. Nicotinic acid supplementation can cause skin flushing, itching, impaired glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal distress. Taking 750 mg a day for less than 3 months can cause liver damage. High doses of nicotinamide can cause nausea and liver toxicity.
- Sources : Mushrooms, asparagus, peanuts, brown rice, corn, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato, potato, lentils, barley, carrots, almonds, celery, turnips, peaches, chicken meat, tuna, salmon
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
- Deficiency : very unlikely. Only in severe malnutrition can tingling in the feet be noticed.
- Toxicity : Nausea, heartburn, and diarrhea can be noticed with high-dose supplements.
- Sources : Broccoli, lentils, peas, avocado, whole wheat, mushrooms, sweet potato, sunflower seeds, cauliflower, green leafy vegetables, eggs, pumpkin, strawberries, liver
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
- Deficiency : Symptoms include chelosis, glossitis, stomatitis, dermatitis (all similar to vitamin B2 deficiency), nervous system disorders, insomnia, confusion, nervousness, depression, irritability, interference with the nerves that supply muscles, and movement difficulties of these muscles, and anemia. Prenatal deprivation causes mental retardation and blood disorders in the newborn.
- Toxicity : High doses of supplemental vitamin B6 can result in painful bouquet symptoms.
- Sources : whole wheat, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, potato, chickpea beans, banana, trout, spinach, tomatoes, avocado, walnuts, peanut butter, tuna, salmon, lima beans, bell peppers, beef chicken
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
- Deficiency : very rare in humans. Be aware that consuming raw egg whites over a long period of time can cause biotin deficiency. Egg whites contain the protein avidin, which binds to biotin and prevents its absorption.
- Toxicity : They are not known to be toxic.
- Sources : Green Leaf BOH, most nuts, whole wheat bread, avocado, raspberries, cauliflower, carrots, papaya, banana, salmon, eggs
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Folate is the natural form found in food. Folic acid is the natural form found in commercially available supplements and fortified foods. Inadequate folate status is associated with neural tube defects and some cancers.
Deficiency : anemia (macrocytic / megaloblastic), sprue, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weakness, weight loss, cracking and redness of the tongue and mouth, and diarrhea may be noted. In pregnancy there is a risk of low birth weight and premature practice.
Toxicity : None of the foods. Be aware that vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia. Large doses of folic acid given to an individual with an undiagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency could correct megaloblastic anemia without correcting the underlying vitamin B12 deficiency.
Sources : Green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, citrus fruits, black peas, spinach, Northern beans, whole grains, baked beans, green peas, avocado, peanuts, lettuce, tomato juice, banana, papaya, organ meat
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
Vitamin B12 must combine with intrinsic factor before being absorbed into the bloodstream. We can store a year’s worth of this vitamin — but it still needs to be consumed regularly. B12 is a product of bacterial fermentation, so it is not present in higher order plant foods.
- Deficiency : Symptoms include pernicious anemia, neurological problems and drinking fountain.
- Toxicity : Not known from supplements or food. Only a small amount is absorbed orally, so the difference in toxicity is low.
- Sources : Enriched cereals, liver, trout, salmon, tuna, haddock, egg
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Deficiency : Symptoms include bruising, gum infections, lethargy, tooth cavities, tissue swelling, dry hair and skin, bleeding gums, dry eyes, hair loss, joint paint, stinging edema, anemia, delayed wound healing, and bone fragility. Long-term deficiency causes scurvy.
Toxicity : Possible problems with very large doses of vitamin C including kidney stones, rebound scurvy, increased oxidative stress, excess iron absorption, vitamin B12 deficiency, and erosion of tooth enamel. Up to 10 grams / day is safe based on most of the data. 2 grams or more a day can cause diarrhea.
Sources : Guava, pepper, kiwi, orange, grapefruit, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, melon, papaya, broccoli, sweet potato, pineapple, cauliflower, kale, lemon juice, parsley.
2-Types of Fat-soluble Vitamins
Vitamina A (Retinoides)
Carotenoids that can be converted by the body to retinol are known as provitamin a carotenoids.
- Impairment : One may notice difficulty seeing on thin, fair and rough / dry skin.
- Toxicity : Hypervitaminosis A is caused by consuming excessive amounts of preformed vitamin A, not plant carotenoids. Preformed vitamin A is rapidly and slowly absorbed sexually from the body. Nausea, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, and dry skin can occur. Consuming too much during pregnancy can cause birth defects.
- Sources : Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, green leafy vegetables, squash, cantaloupe, bell pepper, Chinese cabbage, meat, eggs, peaches
Deficiency : In children, a vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, deformed bones, retarded growth, and soft teeth. In adults, a vitamin D deficiency can result in osteomalacia, softened bones, spontaneous peculiarities, and tooth decay.
Those at risk for deficiency include infants, the elderly, dark-skinned individuals, those with minimal sun exposure, fat malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney failure, and seizure disorders.
Toxicity: Hypervitaminosis D is not the result of sun exposure but of chronic supplication. Overuse of supplements will raise calcium levels in the blood and cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst, excessive urination, itching, muscle weakness, joint pain and disorientation. Soft tissue calcification can also occur.
Sources: sunlight, fortified foods, mushrooms, salmon, mackerel, sardines, tuna, eggs
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
- Deficiency : only noticed in those with severe malnutrition. However, suboptimal consumption is relatively common.
- Toxicity : Minimal copy effects have been observed in adults taking supplements at doses less than 2000 mg / day. There is a potential risk of impaired blood clotting. Babies are more vulnerable.
- Sources : BOH leafy greens, almonds, sunflower seeds, olives, blueberries, most nuts, most seeds, tomatoes, avocado
Vitamin K (tocopherol)
Deficiency : Tendency to bleeding or hemorrhage and anemia.
Toxicity : May interfere with glutathione. High dose toxicity is not known.
Sources : Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, parsley, watercress, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, green beans, green peas, carrots
Dietary elements (commonly known as dietary minerals or mineral nutrients) are the chemical elements required by living organisms, distinct from the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules.
The types of vitamins are generally classified into:
- Types of vitamins: Macrominerals
- Types of vitamins: Microminerals
- Deficiency : Long-term inadequate intake can result in low bone mineral density, rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis.
- Toxicity : will cause nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, thirst, increased urination, kidney stones and soft tissue calcification.
- Sources : BOH leafy greens, legumes, tofu, molasses, sardines, okra, perch, trout, Chinese cabbage, rhubarb, sesame seeds.
- Deficiency : very rare. Those at risk are premature babies, those using antacids, alcoholics, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and refeeding syndrome.
- Toxicity : very rare. It can result in soft tissue calcification.
- Sources : Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, eggs, fish, buckwheat, shellfish, corn, wild rice
- Deficiency : not the result of insufficient dietary intake. Caused by loss of protein. Diuretics can also cause excessive loss of potassium in the urine. Low potassium in the blood can lead to cardiac arrest.
- Toxicity : occurs when potassium intake exceeds the elimination capacity of the kidneys. He encountered kidney failure and potassium-sparing diuretics. Oral doses greater than 18 grams can lead to toxicity. Symptoms include tingling in the limbs and muscle weakness. High doses of potassium supplements can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Sources : Sweet potato, tomato, green leafy vegetables, carrots, plums, beans, molasses, squash, fish, bananas, peaches, apricots, cantaloupe, potatoes, dates, raisins, mushrooms
To live, we have to extract the necessary vitamins from natural food.
When I say the word vitamins, most of us immediately think about pills, and here is the confusion with drugs and medications.
What “NO” are vitamins?
They are neither pills with an energizing effect nor substitutes for daily meals. Many people imagine that vitamins can replace food. False, they cannot replace proteins, or any other nutritional element, such as: minerals, carbohydrates, water , etc.
In reality, they cannot be assimilated in the absence of ordinary food and they are not energy drugs and have no caloric or energy value of their own.
How do they work?
If we compare the human body to an internal combustion engine and consider vitamins to be its spark plugs, then we could get an idea about how these reproductive nutrients work.
Vitamins regulate metabolism through enzyme systems. a single vitamin deficiency that can de-regulate the entire body.
Vitamins are components of enzymatic systems that, acting as sparks that stimulate and regulate metabolism, guaranteeing the functioning of the entire set with the highest parameters.
Life can only exist in the presence of all essential vitamins.
Due to the fact that when they were discovered the chemical composition was not known and could not be given a scientific name, most vitamins were designated by a letter of the alphabet.
Vitamin deficiency is manifested by states of fatigue, increased risk of infections, irritability, muscle pain, insomnia, growth disorders
Adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is in the daily diet, but that is not entirely possible due to the lifestyle alert that does not include all kinds of nutrients.
The fruits and vegetables available in the market are low in vitamins and minerals compared to organic ones.
Under these conditions, the pharmaceutical market is offering more natural or identical remedies, convincing consumers that if they take their daily ration of pills they will be healthier and more energetic.
What are the differences between natural vitamins and vitamin supplements?
The vitamins are obtained by chemical synthesis, fermentation or extraction from natural sources, eventually yielding a product chemically equivalent to the corresponding substances which have been isolated from plants.
Did you know that vitamins represent around 97% of the Spanish supplement market, being much cheaper than natural ones? Natural vitamins are not individual molecular compounds, but biological complexes whose action depends on a multitude of variables.
These biochemical complexes act like vitamins only in the presence of all the factors and components that make them up. We can associate the natural vitamin with the extremely complex human body, within which each apparatus, tissue and cell performs its function with great precision.
But if we separate an organ from the body, making it perform its function outside of it, the results can be expected. Natural vitamins are assimilated in a proportion of 98%.
Vitamins are not individual molecular compounds, but biological complexes whose action depends on a multitude of variables.
These biochemical complexes act like vitamins only in the presence of all the co-factors and components that form them.
Vitamins found in their natural state in fresh vegetables and fruits have an absorption of up to 98%. Vitamins are assimilated in the proportion of only 10-20%.
Less than 10 or 20 percent of the nutrients contained in a capsule reach the cellular level, which means that 80-90 percent are removed from the body which is harmful to the liver, the immune system.
Financially speaking, of a sum of money spent on vitamins, more than half end up in the bathroom. The nutrients in a pill are absorbed at a percentage of 10-20% compared to the natural ones absorbed at a percentage of 98%.
An experiment carried out on two batches of mice showed that the group that was given synthetic vitamins lived less than the group that did not receive from food, basically, hunger was less lethal than synthetic vitamins Natural vitamins are living complexes .
Another difference arises from the compliance of individuals with the treatment. Many people find it difficult to swallow a certain number of pills a day to provide the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Any isolated part of a natural vitamin does not work as well as the vitamin itself would. For example, taking vitamin E requires absorption of zinc, but taking zinc requires vitamin C.
In 1930, Dr. Szent-Gyorgy won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of vitamin C in his attempts to find a cure for scurvy.
Szent-Gyorgy managed to treat scurvy using concentrates from foods rich in vitamin C: lemon, bell pepper, and green lemons.
It was then that he thought of isolating the compound, which, in his opinion, worked against scurvy – and thus discovered the molecule of ascorbic acid.
When he started treating people suffering from scurvy with ascorbic acid (the isolated molecule in the vitamin C complex), he realized that the treatment did not work.
Following these records, he pointed out that the only effective and safe form of vitamin C is natural, from whole foods, and that isolated ascorbic acid should be considered a medicine.
Despite this, we are putting an equal sign between ascorbic acid and vitamin C, but ascorbic acid is not vitamin C.
The benefits that vitamin C can be derived from a phytonutrient compound that can be found only in whole natural foods.
Natural sources of vitamin C: vitamin C bioflavonoids, anthocyanide, heart vessels, such as catechins, tyrosinase, etc.
All of this works synergistically, and the role of ascorbic acid is to prevent the rapid oxidation of all the other bioflavonoids in the vitamin C complex.
The ascorbic acid in Bills is just one copy of the ascorbic acid that is naturally found in the biologically active complex called vitamin C, which in turn is just a part of vitamin C.
The vitamin is a biochemical complex, and its activity refers to the biological changes that occur at the cellular level in the presence of that active vitamin. Thus, it is easy to understand that vitamins represent much more than the sum of their constituent parts.
Vitamin overdose and its side effects
The vitamins have positive effects, yet studies, surpassing the dose needed by the body has caused many diseases, adverse effects that occur in the case of vitamins:
Vitamin A : excess causes nausea, vomiting, headache, even visual impairment, thickening of the skin or osteoporosis.
B vitamins : it is recommended that the management of the whole group, the administration of one vitamin can also lead to obstruction of the absorption of the other vitamins from the overdose of group B,
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) affect the thyroid gland and insulin secretion, leading to deficiency of other B vitamins.
Vitamin B6: Overdoses of vitamin B2 (riboflavin), especially if other antioxidants are not taken in parallel, lead to increased photosensitivity of the skin with the appearance of erythema, itching, burning or tingling.
Vitamin B6: in large quantities it can cause neurological disorders, it is recommended to take in equal proportions with vitamin B1 and B2.
Vitamin C: although it is a water-soluble vitamin and the body eliminates excess amounts, however, increased doses can cause the development of uric and oxalic acid stones and change the values of certain laboratory tests.
Excess vitamin D causes severe hypercalcal, imbalance in the calcium-potassium ratio, and symptoms cause a feeling of insatiable thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, and accelerated transit.
Vitamin E: in hypertensive patients it can cause arterial hypertension and its administration requires caution in diabetics or people with thyroid hyperfunction.
Vitamin K: excess leads to the destruction of blood cells invisible with the development of anemia
What are nutrients?
Many people believe that nutrients and vitamins expropriate perfectly, they do not.
There are six important nutrients.
- Proteins (made up of amino acids),
Nutrients are components of food necessary for the health of the body.
Nutrients play a very important role: it is essential for the functioning of internal organs, food processing, energy generation, and supporting the development of people.
How do nutrients work?
To use them, the rhythm breaks down the nutrients. In principle, the nutritive elements act through digestion.
Digestion is a process of continuous chemical breakdown of substances that enter the body.
These substances are broken down by enzymatic action into small fragments that can be absorbed through the walls of the digestive tract tube that is more than 10 meters long at both ends.